Connectors three basic performance introduction


(1) Mechanical properties


    On connectivity, the insertion force is an important mechanical properties. Plug into force insertion force and withdrawal force (pull force known as separation force), both requirements are different. Another important mechanical properties are the mechanical life of the connector. Mechanical life is actually a durability index, in GB GB5095 in it is called mechanical operation. It is the first time you insert and pull out of a loop to loop after a predetermined plug connector can normally complete its connectivity features (such as contact resistance value) as the basis for evaluation. Connector insertion force and mechanical life contact structure (positive pressure size), the contact portion coating quality (sliding friction coefficient) and the dimensional accuracy of contact arrangement (aligned degrees) related.


    (2) Environmental Performance


    Common environmental performance including temperature, humidity, salt spray, vibration and shock resistance.


    ① temperature. Currently connector maximum operating temperature of 200ºC (except a few special high-temperature connector), the minimum temperature is -65ºC. Since the connector is working, current generates heat at the contact point, leading to the temperature rise, it is generally considered to be equal to the operating temperature and the junction temperature of the ambient temperature and. In some specifications, clearly defined maximum temperature rise connector rated operating current permitted.


    ② moisture. Intrusion of moisture will affect the connector insulation, and corroded metal parts. Damp heat test conditions for the relative humidity at 90% to 95% (depending on product specifications, up to 98%), the temperature is + 40 ± 20ºC, according to the specified test time minimum of 96h. Damp heat test is more stringent.


    ③ resistant to salt spray. When the connector works in an environment containing moisture and salinity, and its metal structure, the contact surface treatment layer may produce galvanic corrosion, affecting the physical and electrical properties of the connector. In order to evaluate the tolerance of the electrical connector of this environment, the salt spray test prescribed. It is the connector hanging in a temperature-controlled test chamber using compressed air discharge with a predetermined concentration of sodium chloride solution to form a salt spray atmosphere, its exposure time defined by product specification, at least 48h.


    ④ resistant to vibration and shock. Resistant to vibration and shock are important properties of the electrical connector, such as aviation and aerospace, rail and road transport is particularly important in a particular application environment, it is an important indicator of the robustness and electrical test electrical connector contact reliability of the mechanical structure . In the relevant test methods are clearly defined. Shock test should provide peak acceleration, duration and impulse waveform and electrical discontinuity of time.


    ⑤ other environmental performance. According to requirements, and other environmental performance as well as tightness (air leak, the liquid pressure), the liquid impregnation of the electrical connector (abuse-resistant capabilities of specific liquids) and low air pressure.


    (3) electrical properties


    The main electrical performance of the connector includes a contact resistance, insulation resistance and dielectric strength.


    ① contact resistance. High-quality electrical connectors should have a low and stable contact resistance. Connector contact resistance from a few cents to tens milliohms range.


    ② insulation resistance. Measure the insulation performance of the index between the electrical connector and the contact member and the connector housing, of the order of several hundred to several thousand megohms megohm range.


    ③ dielectric strength. Dielectric strength, also known as resistance, voltage, medium voltage, tolerance is the ability to characterize the connector between contacts or contacts with the housing rated test voltage.


    ④ other electrical properties. EMI leakage attenuation of electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness evaluation connector, EMI leakage attenuation of electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness evaluation connector, generally in the frequency range of 100MHz ~ 10GHz test. RF coaxial connectors, as well as the characteristic impedance, insertion loss, reflection coefficient and voltage standing wave ratio and other electrical indicators. Due to the development of digital technology, in order to connect and transmit high-speed digital pulse signal, the emergence of a new type of connector that is high-speed signal connectors, accordingly, the electrical properties, in addition to the characteristic impedance, but also there are some new electrical indicators , such as crosstalk, transmission delay and time-delay.



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